As a social phenomenon, Islam first appeared in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century AD. Prophet Muhammad was the first person to introduce Islam to Mecca. In just two decades since the beginning of his da’wah, Muhammad has succeeded in making Muslims spread so rapidly that they reached beyond the Arabian Peninsula. Benson Bobrik (2013) in the Glory of Harun ar-Rashid noted, Muslim troops had begun to expand their power reach to areas along the borders of the Byzantine Empire.
The PhD graduate from Columbia University continued, after the chosen man died, it was recorded that victory after victory continued to be inscribed on the shoulders of the history of the spread of Islam. Just two years after that, the Muslim army had reached Chaldea (Southern Iraq) and gave it the City of Hira. The Battle of Yarmuk in 634 paved the way for control of Syria. Damascus fell in 635. Antioch and Jerusalem in 636, Seleucia-Ctesiphon, the Capital of Chaldea, in 637, and Caesarea in 638.
Mesopotamia continued to be annexed, the cities of Basra and Kufa were founded. The decisive move became apparent, part of Persia was annexed in 638-40, and the Battle of Nahawand in 642 ended Sassanid rule in Persia and put all of Persia under Muslim control. The Persian Empire at that time was easily subdued because he was exhausted after fighting with the Byzantine Empire for thirty years. This victory also meant at the same time placing the Byzantine Empire as a “periphery” state and tearing apart the territory of the Roman Empire. A year before the Persian conquest, 641, Egypt had also become part of Islamic rule.
Until, practically it only took thirty years after the death of the title holder of Al-Amin, continued Bobrik, the Muslim troops had even succeeded in sweeping an area the size of the former Roman Empire.
This territorial expansion continues. With the dawn of the 8th century, the power of these Muslims had reached the Chinese border, at Kasghar, so that a treaty with the Chinese nation was reached. And not long after that, the Tang Dynasty in the east was successfully destroyed. It was the beginning of the 8th century that Islam began to enter the West, namely Spain today. Previously, Muslims had controlled several areas in North Africa such as Morocco. Then from there, the map of the expansion of Islamic power moved to Spain, where when Islam was in power this area was known as Andalusia.
When viewed on a modern map of the spread of Islam throughout the world, Asia and Africa are the most dominant regions. Islam grew and developed not only into a belief system adopted by the world community, but also into a civilization with many empires.
Yes, history records the existence of the Umayyad Empire (appeared in the middle of the 7th century), the Abbasids (appeared in the middle of the 8th century) or often called the early period, to the Ottoman Empire (appeared in the 13th century), Safavid (appeared in the early 13th century). 16th century), and the Mughals (appeared early 17th century) in the late golden period of Islam, were the most powerful and great empires in the world.
It is interesting to note, in the golden era of Islamic history, the journey and expansion of Islam’s influence in the world has not only made progress in the development of science. Islam has also succeeded in creating a civilization that breathes Islamic values. When the golden period lasted, it could be said that Western civilization was at the lowest point of the dark ages.
But not all of the expansion of the religion of Islam goes by the way of submission or violence. Is a region of Southeast Asia, which is often mentioned by many historical researchers, Islam is believed to have entered this region by peaceful means. Or if there is an aspect of subjugation or violence, this case is believed to be only a minor case and not mainstream history. The mechanism of the way of da’wah, trade and the spread of Islamic Sufism is allegedly the main catalyst for the widespread spread of Islam in Southeast Asia, including in Indonesia, through the peaceful way.